Tag Archives: buiometria partecipativa

Capraia Night Sky 2018, reloaded – end of week 1

Here is a recapitulation of this week’s articles:

Oct. 15 – Giacomelli – Introduction
Oct. 16 – Gini et al. urban ecology 
Oct. 17 – Depellegrin et al. coastal areas 
Oct. 18 – Ortolani et al. spectroscopic analysis 
Oct. 19 – Welch Dark sky places 

The next article will be available on Oct. 22.

For more information on these topics you may also see the Outreach on lighting and darkness page.

CPNS2018 4/28: Dark Sky Places of the World

[This article is part of the “Capraia Night Sky Symposium, reloaded” series – check this introduction to learn more]

DARK SKY PLACES OF THE WORLD
D. Welch
Chair, Dark Skies Advisory Group
World Commission on Protected Areas, IUCN
welch.ottawa@gmail.com

From 1993 to March 2018, 149 dark sky parks and communities in 23 countries have been  recognized by various organisations,  notably the International Dark Sky Association (IDA), the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada (RASC) and the Starlight Initiative.
Because light pollution impacts species and their interactions, many natural area organizations implement lighting systems friendly to night sky viewing and night ecology. Parks Canada and the RASC developed guidelines for outdoor lighting in parks, now
recommended by IDA. These guidelines apply in the 27 Canadian dark sky preserves. The Natural Sounds and Night Skies Division of the US National Park Service has guided 22 of its sites to be among USA’s 65 dark sky places, mostly recognized by the IDA.
The Starlight Initiative certifies 16 Starlight Reserves mostly in Spain. Several other places are certified by sub-national levels of government or by astronomy research groups. As well as parks and communities, the IDA certifies “Developments of Distinction” and,
likewise, the Starlight Initiative “Starlight Tourism Destinations.”

Because these programmes use many different naming systems, the IUCN Dark Skies Advisory Group developed a 6 class system, some with sub-classes, to enable world-wide comparisons.

1, Dark Sky Astronomy Site, 14 places around the world.
2, Dark Sky Park, 86 places.
3, Dark Sky Heritage Site, 3 places.
4, Dark Sky Outreach Site 9 places.
5, Dark Sky Reserve, 13 places.
6, Dark Sky Community, 24 places.

Several challenges remain.

1)Light pollution reduction is often overshadowed by other threats to nature, such as climate change.
2) Much work remains to be done to reduce light pollution in urban areas, where protected areas can play a role through outreach, visitor engagement and demonstrating best practices.
3) There still needs to be recognition that protected areas, by default, should be dark sky places.

KEYWORDS: protected areas, nature conservation, parks, communities, best
practices, outreach.

Capraia Island, Italy, Sep. 2018 (photo by Zoltan Kollath)

CPNS2018-3/28: A Spectroscopic Analysis of Light Pollution at the Asiago Observatory

[This article is part of the “Capraia Night Sky Symposium, reloaded” series – check this introduction to learn more]

S. Ortolani1,2, A. Bertolo3, S. Cavazzani4,5, P. Ochner6,7

1Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 2, 35122 Padova, Italy

2INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, Italy

sergio.ortolani@unipd.it

3Regional Agency for Environmental Protection and Prevention, Veneto, Department of Padova,Via Ospedale Civile 24, 35121 Padova, Italy

andrea.bertolo@arpa.veneto.it

4Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 2,

35122 Padova, Italy

5INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, Italy

stefano.cavazzani@unipd.it

6Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 2, 35122 Padova, Italy

7INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, Italy

paolo.ochner@unipd.it

Abstract

We present the spectra evolution of the sky at Asiago Astronomical Observatory form an unprecedent archive collected in the last half century. They will be compared with typical city lamp spectra. The artificial light pollution spectral evolution during the night is also investigated and its impact on astronomical observations is briefly discussed.

Keywords: light pollution, site testing, night sky spectra, aurora lines, sodium lines

The Asiago astronomical observatory (source: Wikipedia)

CPNS2018-2/28: Incorporating Light Pollution into Cumulative Effects Assessment in Coastal Areas of the Italian Adriatic Sea

[This article is part of the “Capraia Night Sky Symposium, reloaded” series – check this introduction to learn more]

D. Depellegrin (1) , M. Drius (1) , S. Menegon (1),
G. Farella (1) , L. Zaggia (1) , F. Falchi (2) , A. Pugnetti (1) ,
L. Bongiorni (1)

(1) Institute of Marine Sciences, National Research Council
(ISMAR-CNR), Arsenale – Tesa 104, Castello 2737/F,
30122, Venice, Italy
(2) ISTIL – Light Pollution Science and Technology Institute,
Via Roma, 13, 36016, Thiene, Italy

daniel.depellegrin@ve.ismar.cnr.itlucia.bongiorni@ismar.cnr.it

ABSTRACT
Artificial light at night (ALAN) from coastal urban areas represents
a direct threat to marine organisms as it can affect their natural
behaviour, migration and reproduction, and it may interfere
with community interactions such as competition or predation.
Despite increasing research activities on assessing ecological
consequences of ALAN, the overall effects of this threat on marine
ecosystems remain largely unknown. Besides, ALAN can interact
with other human stressors contributing to multiple impacts on
marine ecosystems. In order to adequately assess the cumulative
effects of human stressors to marine biota, it is therefore essential
to integrate ALAN into decision support systems including impact
assessment models.

An advanced model for coastal light pollution
assessment, based on expert elicitation and on a spatially detailed
artificial night sky brightness dataset, is presented and tested for
coastal areas of the Italian Adriatic Sea. Effects on marine organisms
(e.g. turtles) are mapped and discussed for their ecological
relevance, importance within multiple environmental impacts, as
well as for their significance for coastal management and planning.

 

KEYWORDS: light pollution, coastal ecosystems, cumulative impacts, modelling,
Adriatic sea

Italian translation by Lucia Bongiorni

Image source: Wikipedia (Adriatic Sea)

The Capraia Symposium on Protection and Promotion of the Night Sky, reloaded

After the international symposium on the protection and promotion of the night sky held on Capraia Island, Tuscany, Italy on Sep. 13-14 2018 (see report), with the BuioMetria Partecipativa project we decided to republish an “augmented” version of the symposium proceedings.

From the pibinko.org blog we will issue the abstract of each presentation, together with its Italian translation. For authors who are not Italian or English mother tongue, where possible we will also provide the translation of the abstract in their mother tongue, as an additional outreach exercise.

Departure from Leghorn towards Capraia

The symposium presentations were 28. We will make the abstracts available more or less daily, with the cpns2018 tag, together with some photo coverage taken during the mission to Capraia.

The original version of the book of abstracts can be downloaded from the  symposium website.

The order of the presentations from the blog will not follow the actual symposium schedule, and we start with Andrea Eugenio Gini from  Lucca, Italy,  and his overview on The ALAN phenomenon in the broader frame of urban evolutionary ecology

With this series of articles we hope that interested followers will get to know a bit more in depth the experiences shared during the symposium, and will obtain a broader view concerning artificial light at night, especially from the standpoint of ecology and natural resource management.

For more information: bmp@pibinko.org

 

CPNS2018-1/28: The ALAN phenomenon in the broader frame of urban evolutionary ecology�

A. Gini (1,2), M. A. L. Zuffi (2)

(1) Via A. Gramsci 191, 55100 Lucca (Lucca), Italy – andreaeugenio.gini@gmail.com

(2) Museo di Storia Naturale, Università di Pisa, via Roma 79, 56011 Calci (Pisa) – Italy – marco.zuffi@unipi.it

Abstract

Artificial light at night (ALAN) is a threat to ecosystem, which due to
urbanization it is increasing globally. This review is part of a wider
project proposal of evolutionary ecology in urban and peri-urban
populations of the Italian fauna. Here we provide an overview of
the effects of light pollution on a plethora of organisms, as well as
of ecosystem functions. Cloud cover can increase the area where
light irradiance arrives, potentially affecting peri-urban habitats
like wetlands. Polluted aerosols and the different thermal regimes
of cities can increase the phenomenon of cloud cover, directly
amplifying ALAN.
Light alters both physiology functions like metabolism, circadian
rhythms and behaviours like activity and interactions. This
alteration in a wetland area can potentially affect the entire
ecology of zooplankton, aquatic insects, urodeles, and anurans.
Another common effect of ALAN is the attraction of nocturnal
insects, especially moths. They can provide a window to small-
scale evolutionary and trophic alteration studies, because they
affect the diet of their predators and the delicate equilibrium of
the ecosystem. Lastly, an augmented presence of light can alter
the effects of communication signals, or create new ones. Visual
communication mediated by colours, shapes, and signals is very
common between animals, especially for courtship. Light can
dimmer the contrast between the environment and an organism,
blinding the communication, but can also exacerbate a shape or a
reflectance colour in camouflaged animals.
All of these phenomena participate with many others in the
differentiation of the urban environment, and they are all necessary
to enlighten how the evolution acts in their ecology.

KEYWORDS: ALAN, urban ecology, evolution, natural selection, adaptation,
environment.

Men at work on CPNS2018 presentations on the ferry

Here’s a petition to the European Parliament on light pollution, for you to consider..

…and maybe sign.

Since 2008 with the BuioMetria Partecipativa project we work on protection and promotion of night sky as a resource and on awareness raising on light pollution.

Since 2013 we collaborate with various organisations in Europe on the same topics. Some of these organisations, currently active on the Stars4all project, have drafted a petition to the European Parliament, advocating a European Directive on light pollution.

With the BuioMetria Partecipativa project, in over eleven years we held almost 130 outreach events at various latitudes, obtained recurring national media coverage, conducted scientific activities, contributed to the creation of networks involving citizens, public and private sector organisations. Above all, we invited a lot of people to think about how much light (and which lights) they use. We are writing primarily to those who followed us on the events, and more in general to whoever is interested to the light pollution topic.

We encourage you to review the petition drafted by th Stars4all team. If you agree, sign it, and let us know you did (please write to bmp@pibinko.org). If you don’t agree with the petition, or you have any doubt, we would like to hear from you (again, write to bmp@pibinko.org).

 

Recommended steps

  1. Check out the full petition text
  2. Register on the European Parliament petition portal
  3. Once you have registered, log in to the petition portal, go to the petition page (look for n. 362/2018, or click here once you are logged in to go there directly) and click on the bottom right button to sign the petition.
  4. Write to bmp@pibinko.org to let us know how it went

European Parliament Petition No 0362/2018 on the possible adoption of European legislation against light pollution

The petition text was kindly provided by Sibylle Schroer from the Stars4all project – please see THIS PAGE for a presentation of the initiative related to the petition, which we translated into Italian for promotion by the BuioMetria Partecipativa project

The brightening of nightscapes is increasing globally by 2-6 % per annum with unforeseen
consequences for ecosystems and human well-being. The EU directives and norms, like the eco-design directive and the EN 13201 recommend to using most energy efficient light devices and providing a minimum brightness for certain classes of infrastructure. The sole focus on the factors energy efficiency and visual effectiveness will result in an increasing emission of blue light at night and even increase the rate of brightening of nightscapes. The lack of regulations for outdoor light installations can cause additional rebound effects, when efficient lighting becomes available at low cost. Today EU regulations on outdoor lighting lack scientific evidence for minimum and maximum light levels.

Furthermore, thresholds for non-intended light emission into habitat of flora and  fauna and into living areas are often complicated to be enforced. Manifold studies indicate that the ongoing waste and misuse of light, the so called light pollution,

affects human well-being and
health

threatens light sensitive species and their habitat, causing disruptions in ecosystems and loss of biodiversity

destroys nighttime landscapes and the cultural heritage of the starry night scape

is making the observation of the universe impossible.

Therefore, the EU standards on outdoor lighting stand in contradiction to the European legislation for the protection of the environment, the EU Environmental Liability Directive (Directive 2004/35/EC) and in particular the Habitats Directive (Council Directive 92/43/EEC).

We advocate:
• To regulate the maximal intensity for outdoor lighting and to support research in defining
scientifically justification for minimal illumination levels in public lighting standards (e.g. EN13201)
• To limit the light emission directed in the horizontal and above and in shallow downward angles
• To limit the exposure of bright light and particularly light with short wavelength, such as blue and UV-light.

Examples of comparable national / regional legislations within the EU:
• Law for the Protection of the Astronomical Quality of the IAC Observatories (Law 31/1988).
Slovenian national law against light pollution
French Order of 25 January 2013 relating to the night lighting of non-residential buildings in order to limit the light pollution and energy consumption
Regional Lombardy law against light pollution (2015)

Why do we need a European regulation of outdoor lighting?
• To protect citizens from lighting trespasses into their homes, which might have an impact on the circadian rhythm and consequently can increase the risk for health issues like insomnia, obesity and cancer.
• To reduce glare and thus improving safety in European infrastructures.
• To protect Europe’s natural capital and rich biodiversity.

• To support efforts to reach climate protection goals in reducing energy consumption and
associated pollution, carbon dioxide emissions and land-use changes associated with the production
of electricity.
• To protect astronomical viewing sites, for both professional and amateur astronomers.
• To promote the Universal Declaration on the Rights of Future Generations (UNESCO): “Future generations have the right to inherit an unharmed and unpolluted earth, and this includes the right to a pure sky.” (1994, Cousteau-UNESCO group).

More information: http://stars4all.eu/

==========================

Here’s a petition to the European Parliament on light pollution, for you to consider…

…and maybe sign.

Since 2008 with the BuioMetria Partecipativa project we work on protection and promotion of night sky as a resource and on awareness raising on light pollution.

Since 2013 we collaborate with various organisations in Europe on the same topics. Some of these organisations, currently active on the Stars4all project, have drafted a petition to the European Parliament, advocating a European Directive on light pollution.

With the BuioMetria Partecipativa project, in over eleven years we held almost 130 outreach events at various latitudes, obtained recurring national media coverage, conducted scientific activities, contributed to the creation of networks involving citizens, public and private sector organisations. Above all, we invited a lot of people to think about how much light (and which lights) they use. We are writing primarily to those who followed us on the events, and more in general to whoever is interested to the light pollution topic.

We encourage you to review the petition drafted by th Stars4all team. If you agree, sign it, and let us know you did (please write to bmp@pibinko.org). If you don’t agree with the petition, or you have any doubt, we would like to hear from you (again, write to bmp@pibinko.org).

 

Recommended steps

  1. Check out the full petition text
  2. Register on the European Parliament petition portal
  3. Once you have registered, log in to the petition portal, go to the petition page (look for n. 362/2018, or click here once you are logged in to go there directly) and click on the bottom right button to sign the petition.
  4. Write to bmp@pibinko.org to let us know how it went

Aktionsprogramm INSEKTENSCHUTZ! (don’t be scared)

Below is the translation of a press release issued by the German Ministry of Environment on June 20, 2018 (original source here). From the BuioMetria Partecipativa project, it is important that this news circulates.

Following a proposal by Federal Environment Minister Svenja Schulze, the Federal Government today adopted key elements for an “Action Program for Insect Protection”. Based on the key points, the Federal Environment Ministry will finalize the action program after a broad public discussion until 2019 and then immediately start the measures. As an immediate measure Federal Environment Minister Schulze provides five million Euros per year from the “Federal Biological Diversity Program” for insect protection.

Federal Environment Minister Svenja Schulze: “We do not know all that about insect killing, but we know enough to act swiftly, a decision by the Cabinet  on these key points in the first 100 days of my term of office In the Federal Government was important, we now agree on the areas we will act to stop the insect killing, including a more restrictive approach to pesticides, not just glyphosate, and we need more diversity in the landscape Hedges and flowery meadows instead of monocultures are vital for insects, birds and many other animal species.

With the action program insect protection measures are to be taken in the following areas:

  • Promotion of insect habitats and structural diversity in the agricultural landscape,
  • Restoration and networking of insect habitats in other landscape areas,
  • Strengthening protected areas as habitats for insects,
  • Reducing the use of pesticides,
  • Reduction of nutrient and pollutant inputs in soils and waters,
  • Reduction of light pollution.

In addition, the action program should contribute to closing existing knowledge gaps on insect killing and to introduce a uniform nationwide insect monitoring. Also business associations and companies, research and education as well as civic actors up to the individual citizen are to be addressed, informed and encouraged to become active.

As part of the “Federal Biological Diversity Program”, the Federal Environment Ministry has today called for the submission of practical projects to promote insects and their biodiversity. For these projects, five million euros a year are provided. Over the next six to eight years, a total of 30 to 40 million euros from the BMU subsidy program will flow into insect protection.

Federal Environment Minister Schulze states: “Both the total amount of insects and the variety of insect species has declined dramatically in Germany over the past decades.” Insect killing threatens to bring nature out of balance. “Not only birds, bats and other animals disappear with the insects In the end, harming the insects also harms us humans: we lose also valuable services that insect provide to humans – from pollination, to natural pest control, water purification to the conservation of fertile soils.

(thanks to Andrea Jechow, IGB Berlin, for letting us know)